Pages

Powered by Blogger.

History of Travel and Tourism

Travel for trade was an important feature since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation. 

600 BC and thereafter 

The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.

In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha.


500 BC, the Greek civilisation

The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers' needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.

This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds' first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.

The Roman Empire

With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify quality.

Second homes were built by the rich near Rome, occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing.

Travel and Tourism were to never attain a similar status until the modern times.

In the Middle Ages


Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.

Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word.

Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.

Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular feature.

The Grand Tour 

From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a 'Grand Tour' accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.

The development of the spas

The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.
In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.

The sun, sand and sea resorts

The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point.

 Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel in the west

 The rapid urbanisation due to industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely pace in countryside.

Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century 


·        Advent of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel. Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.

·        Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.

·        The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.

·        The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.

·        The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.

·        Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.

·        Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.

·        The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.

·        The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.

·        The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.

Tourism in the Twentieth Century 

The First World War gave first hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west.  The sea side resort became annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations.

The birth of air travel and after 

The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment of organised mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.

A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the establishment of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.

Sarvajeet Chandra writes on issues that are usually brushed under the carpet, or are too everyday-ish for high street strategists. He writes on making strategic plan robust, how to execute strategy well and other tactical issues for everyday business success.

Resorthoppa Review

This Resorthoppa review is to warn people not to use their transfer services. They are one of the worst transfer companies that I have used. If you complain to them, they will be rude and will not listen to your issue. They will try to pass the buck to the holiday company you have bought your holiday from. Hope this Resorthoppa review will bring to light some of the issues holiday makers are facing when using Resorthoppa.

Local beach at the Golf Del Sur resort near the Aguamarina Golf Apartments
In July 2015 we were in Golf Del Sur in South Tenerife staying at Aguamarina Golf Apartments booked by lastminute.com. Everything went well, enjoyed our holiday immensely. We went to the local beaches, went on mount Teide, and went on the Tenerife blanket trip, Loro Parque and so on.

A day before coming back to the UK (24 hours to Bristol airport) we decided to check on our transfer time. We went to the resorthoppa.com website as instructed by lastminute and entered our booking reference number onto the myhoppa search box to find out our pickup time. It said that our transfer will be there at 8.58am (for a flight back to Bristol at 11.20am) and we should be outside our accommodation at least 15 minutes before the scheduled pickup time. We did that, in fact we were out of our of accommodation where the driver could see us clearly waiting for the transfer much before the scheduled time. We waited at least 30 minutes and still no one came. We had children and they were getting restless. We phoned the local number 0034922795503 and there was a recorded message in Spanish which we didn't understand and the phone went dead. I phoned a few times and same message in Spanish. Now panic was beginning to set! Luckily there was a taxi passing by and he stopped to ask us if we needed a taxi. We said yes and he said it will cost 15 Euros to the airport which we were OK to pay. Since it was getting late and we were scheduled to catch the Ryan Air plane back to Bristol Airport, we had little choice.

Resorthoppa Review
Resorthoppa Review - As you can see that it clearly says that we should wait outside the accomadation 
We didn't think much of it, we were just happy to be at the South Tenerife airport. When I came back to home to Cardiff, I phoned Resorthoppa and after waiting about 10 minutes on the phone got connected to a Resorthoppa representative. I gave my reference number and said that we did not get an transfer - she said she can’t do anything about it. All I asked was a refund. In fact, she did not want to know what my issue was. She gave me an email address of lastminute.com and said that I should email them as they were the ones responsible for selling me the holiday. At one point she was getting restless and I could sense an air of arrogance and rudeness in the tone. Nevertheless, she did apologise though but said she can’t do anything.

Aguamarina Golf Apartments Golf Del Sur Tenerife Canaries
The Aguamarina Golf Apartments Golf Del Sur Tenerife Canaries
I emailed lastminute on the email address the Resorthoppa representative had provided but for some reason the emailed bounced back. So I phoned lastminute and was hold in a recoded messaged that they do not deal with complaints on the phone and I should contact them through their website. I did manage to find a contact form which I used to inform them of my problem and asked for a refund of the transfer money. So far I have not heard from them (will keep you updated if I do hear from them).

Email to lastminute
Message to lastminute about the complain. They are now aware of the issue about Resorthoppa (will update if I hear anything from them)
All I ask from Resorthoppa and lastminute is a refund. Both seem to be passing the buck and I have not heard back from any of them. I have a feeling that they get a lot of complaints like this and they will not do anything. I have read many bad complaints and reviews about Resorthoppa on many review websites and sadly this Resorthoppa review reflects a similar complain. 

My issue is that no airport transfer came to pick us up to take us to the airport despite the fact that it had been paid for. In addition, it seems as if they ignored me completely when I phoned to complain by passing the buck to lastminute (I will be keeping an eye on the response by lastminute and what they have to say about Resorthoppa). Both seems to be as bad as each other.

It would have been cheaper and easier if I would have used the local taxi and would have saved me a lot of heartache. I do hope Resorthoppa would listen to this and arrange for an apology and a refund. Is that too much to ask? Hope this Resorthoppa review will warn others holiday makes not to use this company for their transfers.

**This was a Resorthoppa Review. Feel free to comment below. Thank you.

Cardiff to Exmoor National Park day trip Itinerary

Those living in Cardiff will be glad to know that the Exmoor National Park is much closer than the Snowdonia mountains. In fact, it can take up to 4 hours to get to Penrhyndeudraeth where the National Park offices for Snodonia is situated. So why not take the opportunity and try Exmoor National Park instead.

Here’s what you can do for a day trip to Exmoor National Park from Cardiff

First stop - Wimbleball Lake

Leave Cardiff at 7 am and reach the Wimbleball Lake at 9 to 9.30 am. Stop at the lake and have tea/snack (light breakfast). Then go for a little walk for not more than 1/2 mile around the lake’s many footpaths. Then go to the Wimbleball Lake Angling & Watersports Centre and hire a boat. 

Finish this spot by latest 11 to 12 noon.
Wimbleball lake
Wimbleball lake: Source - Wikipedia Commons

Big Pit National Coal Museum

The Big Pit is a National Coal Museum, the only one to be open and functional in Wales. Although no mining is carried out, it remains open to the public. This industrial heritage museum is situated near Blaenavon, Torfaen, South Wales a few miles from Cardiff. A must place to go for those visiting Cardiff. 

Address of Big Pit: Blaenafon, Torfaen NP4 9XP 
Opening hours: 9:30 am – 4:30 pm 
Phone: 029 2057 3650
Admission: Free but have to pay for car park

Big Pit National Coal Museum

Big Pit National Coal Museum


CityJet comes to Wales

The people of Cardiff will be thrilled to know that Cardiff Airport has been able to secure flights from CityJet which is part of the Air France airline group to operate to their Glasgow and Paris routes. They are due to start their service from 20th of January 2014 from the Welsh capital. 

Great news is that the Jet will be able to cover Paris every single day of the week except on Sundays. There will also be flights to Glasgow twice a day every day including weekends. This is good news for business persons and holiday makers travelling to Scotland. A service to Jersey will also be including during from the summer of 2014 with 5 flights a week return from the destination. 

Cardiff Airport

The chairman of Cardiff Airport, Lord Rowe-Beddoe has said: “This is excellent news. I am proud that the management team has succeeded in securing a new airline to fill the breach left by Flybe. The speed with which this has been achieved is testament to management’s commitment to ensuring the Airport’s success.”

CityJet

There are 700 CityJet flights a week to major destination of the United Kingdom and Europe. CityJet is well known for its complimentary services on their flights.

Llwyn-on Reservoir near Cardiff

Located in the Brecon Beacons National Park about 1 hour drive from Cardiff is Llwyn-on Reservoir, the largest and southern most of the three reservoirs in the Taff Fawr valley (Welsh Water). A must place to visit if you happen to be visiting Cardiff.  There are excellent walks and the scenery is breathtaking.
Some photos of Llwyn-on Reservoir
Llwyn-on Reservoir

Llwyn-on Reservoir

Llwyn-on Reservoir

Llwyn-on Reservoir

Llwyn-on Reservoir

Llwyn-on Reservoir

Turkish style in Gumbet

Turkey is one of my favourite places in the world. There’s something special in the air, in the general vibe of the place, and it never shows sign of wavering. I recently visited the seaside resort of Gumbet, combined with a night’s stay at one of the Heathrow hotels, and my holiday was more than one to remember. 

Gumbet
Gumbet  - Source - Flickrcom/photos/nickcloke